October 13, 1307: Philip IV orders the arrest of Templar Knights across France.
On this day, the king of France (with the blessing of Pope Clement V) ordered the arrest of hundreds of Templars, to whom the king owed a tremendous debt. While financially well-off, the Order had gone into decline as Europe lost interest in the Crusades, leaving the organization as a whole aimless and unstable. The knights who were arrested were charged with a series of claims, ranging from plain heresy to demon worship, desecration of the cross, and homosexuality. There was no proof to substantiate any of these claims, and in fact the charges were more or less the “standard” claims made by the king to discredit any “inconvenient” groups and individuals; whether there was any shred of truth to Philip’s charges or not, hundreds of Templars subsequently confessed under torture. While Pope Clement V attempted to secure actual trials for the knights, Philip intervened and had many who had confessed burned at the stake.
At the 1311-1312 Council of Vienne, the Knights Templar was disbanded, and their property was confiscated. In 1314, the last Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques de Molay, was burned at the stake on an island on the Seine. As he died, it is said that he cursed both the king and the pope, and sure enough, Clement and Philip died within nine months of Molay’s execution.
Horloges révolutionnaires (décimales)
(journée de 10h de 100 minutes de 100 secondes)
officiellement en vigueur du 5 octobre 1793 au 7 avril 1795
Decimal time is the representation of the time of day using units which are decimally related. This term is often used to refer specifically to French Revolutionary Time, which divides the day into 10 decimal hours, each decimal hour into 100 decimal minutes and each decimal minute into 100 decimal seconds, as opposed to the more familiar standard time, which divides the day into 24 hours, each hour into 60 minutes and each minute into 60 seconds.
Decimal time was officially introduced during the French Revolution; the National Convention issued a decree on 5 October 1793. Although clocks and watches were produced with faces showing both standard time with numbers 1–24 and decimal time with numbers 1–10, decimal time never caught on; it was not officially used until the beginning of the Republican year III, 22 September 1794, and mandatory use was suspended 7 April 1795 (18 Germinal of the Year III), in the same law which introduced the original metric system.
“The Storming of the Bastille”, Visible in the center is the arrest of Bernard René Jourdan, marquis de Launay (1740-1789), Watercolor painting; 37,8 x 50,5 cm
The storming of the Bastille occurred in Paris, France on the morning of 14 July 1789. The medieval fortress and prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris. While the prison only contained seven inmates at the time of its storming, its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution.
On the morning of 14 July 1789, the city of Paris was in a state of alarm. The demonstrators had earlier stormed the Hôtel des Invalides to gather arms (29,000 to 32,000 muskets, but without powder or shot), and were mainly seeking to acquire the large quantities of arms and ammunition stored at the Bastille.
The crowd gathered outside around mid-morning, calling for the release of the arms and gunpowder. The negotiations dragged on while, and the crowd finally decided to take the prison down and surged into the undefended outer courtyard. About this time gunfire began.
The firing continued, and the attackers were reinforced by mutinous gardes françaises and other deserters from among the regular troops, along with two cannons. Governor de Launay capitulated and the vainqueurs swept in to liberate the fortress at.
Ninety-eight attackers and one defender had died in the actual fighting. De Launay was seized and dragged towards the Hôtel de Ville. He was then stabbed repeatedly and fell, and his head was sawn off and fixed on a pike to be carried through the streets.
Returning to the Hôtel de Ville, the mob accused the prévôt des marchands Jacques de Flesselles of treachery, and he was assassinated en route to an ostensible trial at the Palais-Royal.